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Introduction to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

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Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a powerful technique for controlling analog circuits with a processor's digital outputs. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from measurement and communications to power control and conversion.

Types of Memory in Embedded Systems

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SRAM or DRAM? EEPROM or flash? What types of memory will you use in your next embedded systems design?

A Glossary of Open Source Legal Terms

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If you are considering using software developed by others, such as Linux, within your embedded system, you'll likely need an intellectual property lawyer to read the license agreements such as GPL. Here's a brief glossary of the licensing terminology that's enough to get you started.

How to Implement Internet Protocol (IP) in C

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The Internet Protocol (IP) is the glue that holds an internet together. Here's a compact implementation of the IP layer for embedded C programmers.

Fast Accurate Memory Test Code in C

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If ever there was a piece of embedded software ripe for reuse it's the memory test. This article shows how to test for the most common memory problems with a set of three efficient, portable, public-domain memory test functions.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

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The address resolution protocol provides a necessary bridge between physical and logical addresses on a TCP/IP network.

Every system on a TCP/IP network has two addresses, one physical and one logical. The address resolution protocol (ARP) provides a necessary bridge between these two addresses.

How Ethernet's MAC Addresses Work

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Merely adding a protocol stack and networking API to your software doesn't make you TCP/IP ready. You'll also need to assign your product a MAC address.

How to Calibrate Mechanical Inputs in Software

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Embedded software developers operate in a perfect digital environment but must interact with the imperfect analog real world. To do this it's essential to know how to perform calibration of inputs and sensors.

How to Implement TCP/IP and UDP/IP for Embedded Systems

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If your embedded system is on a network, the key question is: what subset of TCP/IP will you include in your product?

Assembly vs. C: Which is Best for Microcontrollers?

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Given a particular programming problem, what language should you use to realize the solution? Your choice could very well affect the success or failure of the project. So you'd better choose wisely.

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